Liquid water is not present within the ringwoodite, rather the components of water (hydrogen and oxygen) are held within as hydroxide ions. Because these roots absorb so much water, runoff in typical Australian and Southern African rivers does not occur until about 300 mm (12 inches) or more of rainfall has occurred. Of the 3 percent 79 percent of it is found in glaciers and ice caps. Nearly 69 percent is held in glaciers and ice caps. The total volume of water in rivers is estimated at 2,120 km³ (510 cubic miles), or 0.49% of the surface fresh water on Earth. The distribution of river runoff across the Earth's surface is very uneven. About 1.2 percent of this freshwater is considered surface water, which is essential to support life’s needs. Examples of such rivers include those in the Lake Eyre Basin. Because groundwater recharge is much more difficult to accurately measure than surface runoff, groundwater is not generally used in areas where even fairly limited levels of surface water are available. Only about 0.3 percent of our fresh water is found in the surface water of lakes, rivers, and swamps. We are continually investing in the infrastructure improvements necessary to keep your homes and businesses supplied with quality water service. The total volume of water on Earth is estimated at 1.386 billion km³ (333 million cubic miles), with 97.5% being salt water and 2.5% being fresh water. Africa’s Lake Tanganyika is the second deepest freshwater lake, and holds the second largest volume of fresh water. In cooler and drier climates these two related sources tend to be virtually useless, which is why such specialised means are needed to extract the most minimal phosphorus. The world’s fresh water comes from many different sources – some are nearby, and others on the other side of the world. The earth boasts of some of the largest water bodies including the oceans, lakes, and rivers that stretch across approximately two-thirds of its surface. There are other isolated areas of high runoff variability, though these are basically due to erratic rainfall rather than different hydrology. Answer: 1% freshwater stored on earth's surface in the form of stream rivers and lakes. Because water is much denser than any gas, this means that water will flow into the "depressions" formed as a result of the high density of oceanic crust (on a planet like Venus, with no water, the depressions appear to form a vast plain above which rise plateaux). Most lakes are in very inhospitable regions such as the glacial lakes of Canada, Lake Baikal in Russia, Lake Khövsgöl in Mongolia, and the African Great Lakes. It seems extraordinary that the water that supports all terrestrial, as well as aquatic, life on our planet is actually so scarce.  The water in the mantle is dissolved in various minerals near the transition zone between Earth's upper and lower mantle. Explanation: 97.5% of water on Earth exists as saline water found in seas and oceans.  The Canadian cities of Toronto, Hamilton, St. Catharines, Niagara, Oshawa, Windsor, and Barrie, and the U.S. cities of Duluth, Milwaukee, Chicago, Gary, Detroit, Cleveland, Buffalo, and Rochester, are all located on shores of the Great Lakes. In countries such as Yemen, groundwater from erratic rainfall during the rainy season is the major source of irrigation water. To break the numbers down, 96.5% of all the Earth's water is contained within the oceans as salt water, while the remaining 3.5% is freshwater lakes and frozen water locked up in glaciers and the polar ice caps. However, fresh groundwater is of great value, especially in arid countries such as India. The oceanic crust is young, thin and dense, with none of the rocks within it dating from any older than the breakup of Pangaea. This historically aided the development of many of the great civilizations of ancient history, and even today allows for agriculture in such productive areas as the San Joaquin Valley. Most water in Earth's atmosphere and crust comes from the World Ocean's saline seawater, while fresh water accounts for nearly 1% of the total. Indiana American Water customers spend their days on top of our most vital water source – groundwater, which supplies approximately 60 percent of the treated water delivered to homes and businesses for drinking, bathing, chores, and more.  The existence of water was experimentally predicted in 2002, and direct evidence of the water was found in 2014 based on tests on a sample of ringwoodite. Twenty percent of all fresh surface water is in one lake, Lake Baikal in Asia. These include:, The amount of water in the Earth's mantle equals that in all of the oceans, and some scientists have hypothesized that the water in the mantle is part of a "whole-Earth water cycle".
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